It’s been more than a year since the world first learned that Hillary Clinton used a personal email account attached to a private email server to conduct State Department government business.
Since then, Clinton has faced questions about her trustworthiness and honesty on the campaign trail as the Federal Bureau of Investigation launched a criminal probe into her email usage.
Here’s a timeline of the major events from the scandal:
January 21st: Clinton is sworn in as Secretary of State.
December 22nd: The National Archives and Records Administration informs all federal agency heads that all emails — including attachments — relating to government business are considered records to be preserved under the Federal Records Act.
December 13th: Former House Oversight Committee Chairman Darrell Issa (R-CA) sends all Cabinet secretaries — including Clinton — a questionnaire asking about their email use. It was later revealed that the State Department did not comply with the request until after Clinton left the post.
February 1st: Clinton leaves the State Department.
March 3rd: Gawker first publishes the name of one of the email address Clinton used while in office — firstname.lastname@example.org — after it is revealed by a hacker who compromised the email account of longtime Clinton confidant Sidney Blumenthal.Image Credit: Screenshot
September 15th: The National Archives issues another memorandum, this time reminding government officials that they should not use personal email accounts for official business.
October 28th: The State Department requests copies of all work-related emails belonging to its former Secretaries, including Clinton.
November 18th: The House Select Committee on Benghazi requests copies of all of Clinton’s emails pertaining specifically to the September 2012 terrorist attack in Benghazi, Libya.A car vehicle burns after it was set on fire inside the US consulate compound in Benghazi late on September 11, 2012. (Image Credit: Getty – Stringer/AFP)
December 5th: Clinton’s team delivers 30,490 emails to the State Department, per the October request. Another 31,830 emails were deemed private by her lawyers and not handed over.
March 4th: House Benghazi Committee Chairman Trey Gowdy (R-SC) issues a subpoena for Clinton’s personal emails after learning about the private server.
March 5th: In response to the Times’ story, Clinton asks the State Department to turn over all 55,000 pages of her work emails via Twitter:
I want the public to see my email. I asked State to release them. They said they will review them for release as soon as possible.
— Hillary Clinton (@HillaryClinton) March 5, 2015
March 9th: President Obama is asked about Clinton’s email usage, telling CBS News that he learned about her private email account through the media.
March 10th: Hillary speaks out publicly for the first time about the emails, telling reporters that she used the private email address largely for convenience.
March 17th: Former House Speaker John Boehner (R-OH) calls on Clinton to turn over her private email server to a “neutral third party.”
April 12th: Clinton officially announces she’s running for president.
May 4th: Clinton accepts the House Select Committee on Benghazi’s invitation to testify before the committee, per a letter from her lawyer.
May 11th: The House Select Committee on Benghazi releases its interim report, which touches on Clinton’s use of a personal email server. The full report is scheduled to be released sometime in 2016.
May 18th: The New York Times revealed that Clinton used multiple email addresses while serving as Secretary of State.
— Jon Passantino (@passantino) May 18, 2015
May 19th: A federal judge declares that the State Department must release Clinton’s emails on a “rolling basis.” A second court order, issued the following week, stated that the emails needed to be publicly released in batches every 30 days through January 29th, 2016 — just in time for the Iowa Caucuses.
May 22nd: The first batch of emails — about 300 in total — is released publicly. All of the emails in this batch are connected to the Benghazi attack.
June 16th: Longtime Clinton confidant Sidney Blumenthal gives the House Benghazi Committee 120 pages of emails between himself and Clinton that were not previously turned over, raising questions about whether or not the former Secretary of State withheld emails.Sidney Blumenthal (C), a longtime advisor to former President Bill Clinton and former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, arrives to be deposed by the House Select Committee on Benghazi at the U.S. Capitol on June 16, 2015 in Washington, DC. (Image Credit: Getty – Chip Somodevilla)
June 26th: The State Department confirms it does not have any record of the emails Blumenthal turned over to the Benghazi committee.
June 30th: The first of the monthly email batches is released by the State Department.
July 7th: Clinton gives her first major TV interview of the 2016 presidential campaign, where she tells CNN’s Briana Keiler that:
“Everything I did was permitted. There was no law. There was no regulation…”
July 24th: A review completed by the Office of the Inspector General found that Clinton sent at least four emails that were deemed classified at the time of transmission.
August 8th: The Federal Bureau of Investigations launches a “criminal probe” into Clinton’s email server, contacting the company managing the server in order to obtain access to it. A federal judge also ordered Clinton and two of her top aides to declare under oath that they’ve turned over all government-related records in their possession.
August 12th: Clinton agrees to turn over both the server and a thumb drive containing her emails to the Justice Department. Although the server was blank when the FBI picked it up the next day, the FBI later acknowledged that it may be able to recover the information.
August 16th: A list of the 86 people that Clinton wrote to with the personal email address is leaked to the public. Among the recipients were dozens of State Department employees, President Obama and several other top White House aides.
August 18th: Clinton is asked about the FBI’s investigation into her server, resulting in this memorable exchange on the campaign trail.
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August 19th: A Freedom of Information Request filed with the State Department reveals that Clinton used a personal device — not a secured smartphone — while in office.
September 3rd: Bryan Pagliano, a former aide who helped set up the private server, declares that he will invoke the Fifth Amendment right to avoid self-incrimination if asked to testify about his role. It was later revealed that Pagliano was paid for his services.
September 4th: Clinton elaborates further on why she used a private email server during an interview with MSNBC’s Andrea Mitchell.
September 9th: Clinton finally apologizes for using a private email account and server, both in a TV interview and on Facebook:
I wanted you to hear this directly from me:Yes, I should have used two email addresses, one for personal matters and…
September 25th: The State Department sends an additional 925 new emails to the House Benghazi Committee, just hours after it was revealed that emails between the former Secretary of State and then-CENTCOM Commander General David Petraeus were not turned over. Petraeus pled guilty last year to sharing confidential documents with his mistress while serving as director of the Central Intelligence Agency.
October 22nd: Clinton spends nearly 11 hours testifying before the House Benghazi Committee, which includes answering questions about her emails.Democratic presidential candidate and former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton testifies before the House Select Committee on Benghazi on Capitol Hill in Washington, DC. on October 22, 2015. (Image Credit: Getty – Chip Somodevilla)
November 11th: New reports suggest that the FBI has launched a “full-blown investigation” into Clinton’s emails.
January 13th: A federal judge orders the State Department to turn over more than 29,000 pages of emails belonging to longtime Clinton aide Huma Abedin.
January 22nd: State asks for an one-month extension in turning over Clinton’s emails.
January 30th: ABC News reveals that the State Department will not release 22 emails in their entirety because they are “top secret.”
February 8th: The FBI confirms it is investigating Clinton’s email usage while at State:
Letter from FBI to State acknowledges it is "working on matters related" to Clinton's use of a private email server. pic.twitter.com/eZGHx4vNgU
— Byron Tau (@ByronTau) February 8, 2016
February 24th: A federal judge rules that several of Clinton’s top aides can be questioned about their role in the email scandal.
March 3rd: Pagliano reaches an immunity deal with the FBI and the DOJ.
March 28th: The Washington Post reveals that nearly 50 FBI agents have been assigned to investigate Clinton’s emails and that the investigation is nearing its final stages.
March 31st: Rumors swirl that FBI Director James Comey could be personally interviewing Clinton over the next few days. He later announces that there is no rush to complete the investigation, only “to do it well and promptly.”
April 1st: The State Department halts its own investigation of Clinton’s emails until after the FBI completes its work.